Neurodevelopmental and SEND needs


ADHD/ ADD is a neurodevelopmental condition can present differently in boys and girls. It is characterised by difficulty sustaining concentration, may be hyperactive and impulsive, leading to risky behaviour or danger to self. ADHD can have a significant impact on how the child is seen, responded to and ability to make and sustain relationships. It may also impact achievement in school due to the behaviour manifestations of it getting in the way of learning. Girls are less likely to be diagnosed with ADHD because their symptoms are more likely to be inattentive, without the hyperactivity though this is not always the case.

For further information, please see the following links:

ADHD and Mental Health | Signs and Symptoms of ADHD | YoungMinds

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) | Great Ormond Street Hospital (

ADHD in girls and women – Psychiatry-UK

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Children | Psychology Today United Kingdom

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Teen | Psychology Today United Kingdom

Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC)

Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition that affects how children and young people see, experience, communicate and interact with the world. It is a spectrum condition and presents differently in every child or young person. There may be additional differences between the way boys and girls present.

Often there might be a range of ways children and young people present that might indicate they are on the autism spectrum.

  • Communication and social challenges
  • Repetitive, restrictive or rigid behaviour
  • Sensory issues
  • Obsessive interests or hobbies
  • Meltdowns/ shutdowns
  • Extreme anxiety, which may present as demand avoidance, anger, the need for constant reassurance or detailed breakdowns of what is happening when to manage this.

For more information about ASC, please see the following links:

Autism and Mental Health | Signs & Symptoms of Autism | YoungMinds

National Autistic Society (

Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)

Children with DLD have specific challenges in speech, language and communication that cannot be explained by obvious causes.

Parents or professionals might notice that:

  • The child is not talking
  • Speech is immature
  • Struggles to find the right words
  • Speech appears jumbled of confused
  • Struggles to process what is said

For a diagnosis to be considered these need to occur alongside:

  • Interference with daily life and activities.
  • Falling behind peers.
  • Not being part of another developmental delay
  • Not caused by hearing loss, other physical issues, lack of exposure to language, or brain damage.

These difficulties can cause significant frustration, anxiety and distress for a child especially as they realise that others are able to communicate more efficiently or pressure is put on them.

For more information about DLD, please see the following link:

What is Developmental Language Disorder (DLD)? – Afasic


Dyscalculia is a neurodevelopmental learning difficulty that means children struggle with mathematical concepts.

Children may have difficulty with counting,, measuring, estimating, remembering sequnces, mathematical rules, telling time and retrieving information previously learnt in maths. This can cause considerable anxiety and distress around maths and may lead to avoidant behaviour to try and manage this. This may mean the child is punished for something that is beyond their control if their learning difficulty is not recognised.

For more information about Dyscalculia, please see the following link:

Dyscalculia | Psychology Today United Kingdom