Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD)

Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD), is a neurodevelopmental challenge that results from the brain’s inability to integrate certain information received from the body’s sensory systems. The individual reacts in an extreme way to normal things that he or she experiences.

It varies between individuals in both characteristics and intensity

Hypersensitive children (over-responsive to stimuli)

Hyposensitive (under-responsive to stimuli) – which may result in avoidance of an activity.

Children can have trouble in one sensory modality, a few, or all of them.

Some people are so mildly affected that their challenges are barely noticeable and manageable with reasonable adjustments

Others are so impaired they have trouble with daily functioning and struggle to access learning or activities as a result of their overwhelming sensory needs.

Sensory sensitivities may occur within one sensory system or across all:

  • Auditory (hearing)
  • Olufactory (smell)
  • Oral (taste/texture)
  • Proprioception (sense of body position)
  • Tactile (touch)
  • Vestibular (movement)
  • Visual (sight)

For more information about SPD, please see the following links:

Sensory processing disorders | The Good Schools Guide

Sensory Integration Disorder – Lanc UK


Stammering is a neurologically based speech, language and communication difficulty that makes it hard to speak. Children might repeat, get stuck on or prolong sounds that makes it difficult to get words out. This can lead to significant frustration, anxiety and distress for children and make them high risk for teasing or bullying.

Depending on what source you are looking at stammering may also be called stuttering.

For more information about Stammering, please see the following link:

What is Stammering? | STAMMA